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Introduction to Networking

The development of personal computer has brought us magnanimous changes for science, education, business and industry. A parallel revolution took place called Networking.

What is Networking?

Well simply, the Networking is that advancement in technology which allows us connect, share any kind of data (text, numbers, images, audio, videos etc) between computers, laptops, mobile phones and other peripherals. It is used to establish links or connections to transmit more and faster signals. For example, established calling services such as conference calling, voice mail and Truecaller ID.

This chapter addresses two issues of Networking: Data Communication and Network Models.

Data Communication

When we communicate through a network whether it’s a chat or a phone call, always remember we are sharing information. This sharing can be public, private, between individuals, or remote. Remote communications mostly takes place over distance. So, Data communication is the exchange of data between two or more devices via a wire cable or wireless. However, the communication system must be made of hardware (physical equipment such as wires, switches, routers) and software (programs).

So, which are important factors the communication depends upon?

Simple! The delivery of the data, how accurate the data is, the delivery time, and lastly the variation in the delivery time of the data known as Jitter.

A data communication system is consist of five components.

1. Message (or the data), the information sent or received.
      2. Sender, a device could be anything a workstation or a computer, a handset that sends the message.

      3. Receiver, device that receives the message.

      4. Medium, a physical path via which the message is sent; that can be wired (twisted pair, coaxial cable, optical fiber) or wireless (radio waves).

      5. Protocol, it’s a set of rules that manages the entire data communication.

        Now, for the communication to come about the flow of data has to be there. There are three simple ways in which the data flow takes place.

        1. Simplex: In this mode the data flow is unidirectional, as a one way road. Only one device to transmit and another device to receive. A real-life example would be the Telegram of old times.
        simplex method, simplex infrastructure
        Network definition
        2. Half-Duplex: In this mode, both the stations will be able to transmit and receive save for not at the same time. When one device is sending, the other one can only receive and vice versa. So naturally, it’s an improved version of Simplex mode. A real-life example would be a Walkie-talkie used by traffic police and in military communications. 
        half life, half life definition
        Network definition
              3. Full duplex: This enhanced mode of data flow outweighs all of above gaining popularity in major. Here, both the devices will be able to transmit and receive at the same time. Chatting over What’s app or Messenger, talking over phone for hours, or video calling are the best real life examples you got.

              full form, full form of network
              Network definition

              Network Models

              Computer networks are created with different entities. Today when we talk about fundamental networks, there are two in principal category: Local-area networks (LAN) and Wide-area networks (WAN). However, depending on the requirement of the organization there are various types of network can be structured.

              There are three types model that mostly acknowledged,

              1. LAN: It’s a network formed by a set of computers coupled with its related peripherals. You can just simply form a LAN by using two PC’s and a printer in your home or in your office. On its extension audio and video devices can also be added. On the other hand, you can also form a LAN by sharing a communication link (may be wired or wireless) with the group of computers to the server.

              2. WAN: A Wide-area network grants transmission of the data, image, audio, and video over large geographic area which can encompass a country, a continent, and even the entire world. Its mainly used for long distance communication.
              3. MAN: A Metropolitan-area network is mainly designed for customers who need high speed connectivity can have end-points swell all over a city or a region of a city. When it comes to the matter of size or coverage area, it fits right between LAN and WAN.

              Study Sessions

              Q1: State and explain technically the difference between half-duplex and full-duplex mode?

              Q2: What are the factors that determine whether a communication system should be a LAN or a WAN?

              Q3: What are the components that comprise a communication system?


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